Vestibular Test Results in Patients With Horizontal Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
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Vestibular Test Results in Patients With Horizontal Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
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Kim, Eric K, Steenerson, Kristen K, Otero-Millan, Jorge, Sharon, Jeffrey D
Introduction While the mechanism of posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is widely accepted as canalolithiasis, the pathophysiology of horizontal canal BPPV remains controversial. We seek to analyze vestibular test results of patients with horizontal canal BPPV with ageotropic nystagmus (AHC) and geotropic nystagmus (GHC) in comparison to patients with posterior canal BPPV (PC) to better understand its pathophysiology. Methods In a retrospective chart review of adults with BPPV at a tertiary referral balance center, we reviewed the clinical characteristics and compared videonystagmography, caloric, rotary chair, subjective visual vertical (SVV)/ subjective visual horizontal (SVH), and vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) results between groups. Results We included 11 AHC and seven GHC patients and randomly selected 20 PC patients as the comparison group. All groups had a high rate of migraine and low rates of diabetes and head trauma, but no difference between groups. Ipsilateral caloric weakness was more prevalent in the GHC group compared to the PC group (p=0.02). One of two AHC patients and both GHC patients who had SVV/SVH testing had abnormal findings. The only AHC patient who had ocular VEMP testing had abnormal results. Additionally, we observed a significant downbeating component to nystagmus (4 deg/sec or greater) exclusively in the AHC group (5/10 patients, p=0.001). Conclusions Patients with AHC and GHC have unique vestibular testing results. In particular, only AHC patients showed a downbeating component to their nystagmus, which may suggest utricular dysfunction in the pathophysiology of AHC.
Cureus 14(1): e21460
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